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中外科研丨Essential oil extraction method(精油提炼常见方式)
根据众多的实践经验,精油的提炼方式分主要有三种,分别是溶剂萃取法、蒸汽蒸馏法和冷压法。
发布时间:2018-09-29
内容来源:本站原创
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根据众多的实践经验,精油的提炼方式分主要有三种,分别是溶剂萃取法、蒸汽蒸馏法和冷压法。

     无论使用哪一种方式,在提炼的过程,一般都有以下的几个特点: 

     ——提取精油的材料必须是天然的有机植物 

     ——提炼的工艺过程必须符合提炼的要求(譬如温度、时间、冷压水温、环境卫生要求等……)

     ——提炼必须要完全,尽可能物尽其用,避免浪费。 

   

专业的精油提炼工厂在提炼过程中,都会严格控制提炼流程, 主要是考虑精油的以下特质:

    ——精油易挥发

    ——温度低于100℃下蒸发获取精油 

    ——精油不溶于水,但易溶于有机溶剂

    ——容易被空气中的氧气等成分氧化

  以下是几种提炼方法:

  1、溶剂萃取法,浸渍法,脂吸法 

【备注:然然在翻译的时候,并不会完全直译过来,会根据实际的情况进行调整,给到大家比较准确的方式,这一类的方式,主要是借用了精油易溶于有机溶剂,但是不同的溶剂沸点不同进行的。 】

    这是最古老的精油提炼方式,已经有着几千年的提炼历史了。古老的提炼技术中,在提炼时,经常会把茉莉花、玫瑰、橙花等花瓣整齐的铺在涂有植物油脂的托盘上(经常使用玻璃),然后一层一层的叠加,以此获取比较好质量的植物油脂。之后,会通过溶剂分离的方式,获取想要的植物精油。 整个过程需要非常严格、细致的操作,时间往往也很长。 

    补充:此外现在更多使用一些植物油作为载体进行浸泡,以此获取想要的具有一定功效的植物浸泡油,都是非常好的一些方法。 


2、水蒸气蒸馏法

这是从植物中提取精油最主要方法。

通过缓慢的加热水,获取一定温度的蒸汽,通过蒸汽的方式缓慢的将植物油囊中的芳香分子,慢慢的蒸馏出来。

3、冷压法

冷压法往往是 甜橙、橘子,葡萄柚等芸香科果皮类精油的主要提炼方式。简单的清洗,获取果皮,果皮上布满了含有植物精油的油囊,轻轻的用挤压法,就可以获取芬芳的植物精油。但是后期需要过滤。 


除上述基本方法外,目前也比较常用超临界CO2萃取法、超声波法、微波法等很多的方式来获取精油,精油的提炼技术随着科技的进步,也正发展出更多有效,有用,获取更多精油的方式。 




英文原文 

Essential oil extraction method

Based on practice, we divide the oil production methods into 3 categories: Soak; Steamdistillation and Injection

But despite conducted according to any method, the manufacturing process has the following general points:
- Essential oils obtained have natural fragrance materials.
- Process must conform exploitation material.
- Essential oils must be obtained from the material thoroughly, with the 
lowestcost.

Principles of extraction of all the above methods are based on the properties of essential oils such as:
- Volatile.
- Alluring under steam at temperatures below 100oC.
- Easily soluble in organic solvents.
- Easy to be absorbed immediately in the air.


1. Dipping Method
This is the oldest method of producing oil, used for thousands of years. Tocreate an herb oils with best quality, all kinds of flowers such as jasmine,rose, orange blossom is spread out on a tray covered with a layer of oildilution. Processes that oil becomes saturated with fragrance called "separation methods flavoring", and only after several months they keep adding newprocess impact using a solvent to separate the aroma substances. This processis very meticulous, thorough and requires a long time.


2. Steamdistillation method
This is the main method for extracting essential oils from plants. The type ofplant essential oils contained in large vats and boiled under high pressure.Aerosols containing oil is cooled and distilled to one or more times toconcentrate the product.


3. Injection Method
Essential oils oranges, tangerines, grapefruits are extracted by this method.Simply peel squash, contain many parts most drops. With the squeeze method, onecan get full off of vegetable oil.


In addition to the basic method above, it is now applied to scientific and technical progressfor extraction of essential oils such as supercritical CO2 method, ultrasonicmethod, microwave method. The advantage of this method is the extraction of oilis much better, in faster time.